Department of Government
 
18 October, 2017

 

 

 

   

 
“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
 
Welcome to TOLEDO, the common web site for several research projects on Tolerance and Democracy at the Department of Government, Uppsala University! 
 
This site contains information about a number of projects that address the research task of investigating what makes citizens and societies more or less politically tolerant. The projects presented here involve several participants from Europe, Africa and South Asia.
 
The projects are intended to shed light on what determines levels of tolerance and intolerance among citizens who live in areas that differ in measures of economic prosperity or in degree of ethnic pluralism, or in states in differing positions on the continuum from authoritarian rule to democracy. Standard assumptions about tolerance are tested, such as those relating to the influence of literacy, class, gender, membership in civic organisations, levels of social capital, interpersonal trust, and religious and political affiliation. We are also testing the influence of contextual variables such as the character of state institutions, their level of democratic performance, and varying degrees of cultural or ethnic pluralism. Furthermore, we aim to explore a number of new hypotheses on what makes individuals and societies more tolerant. In pursuit of this we have also developed new and more refined ways of measuring tolerance and the factors that may determine variations in the levels of it.
 
TOLEDO
We chose the name TOLEDO as an acronym based on the words Tolerance and Democracy. However, we are also inspired by descriptions of tolerance that according to some hundred years before and after 1000 CE. During the so-called “Golden Age” which characterized for example the city of Toledo, Jews, Christians and Muslims have been described as peacefully co-existing. The period is also known as “La Convivencia” (Coexistence). Moreover, Toledo became the capital of a Spanish Empire stretching over a large number of nations and cultures, thus serving as a reminder of the size and diversity of Europe, India and Africa.
 
The quotation
The comment “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it” is often attributed to Voltaire. Although he expressed opinions of this kind, the actual phrase was coined by Evelyn Beatrice Hall, writing, under the pseudonym “S.G. Tallentyre,” about Voltaire in the biography “The Friends of Voltaire” (1906). We use it on this page not only because it expresses the right to free speech but also because it carries one of the core parts of the definition of political tolerance that we are interested in here.
“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
 
Welcome to TOLEDO, the common web site for several research projects on Tolerance and Democracy at the Department of Government, Uppsala University! 
 
This site contains information about a number of projects that address the research task of investigating what makes citizens and societies more or less politically tolerant. The projects presented here involve several participants from Europe, Africa and South Asia.
 
The projects are intended to shed light on what determines levels of tolerance and intolerance among citizens who live in areas that differ in measures of economic prosperity or in degree of ethnic pluralism, or in states in differing positions on the continuum from authoritarian rule to democracy. Standard assumptions about tolerance are tested, such as those relating to the influence of literacy, class, gender, membership in civic organisations, levels of social capital, interpersonal trust, and religious and political affiliation. We are also testing the influence of contextual variables such as the character of state institutions, their level of democratic performance, and varying degrees of cultural or ethnic pluralism. Furthermore, we aim to explore a number of new hypotheses on what makes individuals and societies more tolerant. In pursuit of this we have also developed new and more refined ways of measuring tolerance and the factors that may determine variations in the levels of it.
 
TOLEDO
We chose the name TOLEDO as an acronym based on the words Tolerance and Democracy. However, we are also inspired by descriptions of tolerance that according to some hundred years before and after 1000 CE. During the so-called “Golden Age” which characterized for example the city of Toledo, Jews, Christians and Muslims have been described as peacefully co-existing. The period is also known as “La Convivencia” (Coexistence). Moreover, Toledo became the capital of a Spanish Empire stretching over a large number of nations and cultures, thus serving as a reminder of the size and diversity of Europe, India and Africa.
 
The quotation
The comment “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it” is often attributed to Voltaire. Although he expressed opinions of this kind, the actual phrase was coined by Evelyn Beatrice Hall, writing, under the pseudonym “S.G. Tallentyre,” about Voltaire in the biography “The Friends of Voltaire” (1906). We use it on this page not only because it expresses the right to free speech but also because it carries one of the core parts of the definition of political tolerance that we are interested in here.